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     1. Median Wage by Occupation Across States (Nevada to Wyoming)
     2. Preparing a Resume
     3. Choosing an Agency
     4. Median Wage by Occupation Across States (Alabama to Nebraska)
     5. How the PT exam is written...
     6. Important Contacts Pre-licensure
     7. College Level Examination Program (CLEP)
     8. Social Security Number for Non-Citizens or Foreign Workers
     9. Retrogression and the Schedule A Profession
     10. Deficiency Makeup Program
     11. Credentialing Problems
     12. READ THIS FIRST!!!
     13. TOEFL, Best Reviewers
     14. Alternate Identification Number, a Substitute for a U.S. Social Security Number?
     15. FCCPT’s Deficiency Make-Up P.L.A.N.
     16. Permanent Placement versus Traveling
     17. USCIS to Issue Two-Year Employment Authorization Documents (EADs)
     18. Is POEA Making it Harder?
     19. H1b quota not reached this year
     Article Guidelines
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  PREPARING A RESUME By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 26 Jan 2008

Preparing a Resume

Someone told me my resume must be one page.  Is that true?

The resume should be as long as it needs to be. The more information you provide will help to better assess your work ethic and background. Include all colleges you've attended after high school and all job experiences within the last 10 years. The most important information should be on the first page. Highlight special training and techniques in which you have taken classes.

Should I include references in my resume? What should I exclude from the resume?

Exclude references, photos, and personal information (hobbies, marital status, children, religious affiliations)

Should I include a cover letter with my resume? What should it say?

You should include a cover letter. It should describe why you are writing (ex. to respond to an ad for a staff position), point out your experience and education, personal skills (such as social skills, your availability or willingness to relocate), and indicate the best way to contact you.

Can I send resumes to search for a position that is not advertised?

Yes, you can send resume to find positions in specific areas in physical therapy and follow up with a phone call.

Lastly, proofread your resume and cover letter. Be sure they are absolutely perfect (no typos or misspelling, nothing out of alignment or in different fonts).

  CHOOSING AN AGENCY By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 26 Jan 2008

Choosing an Agency to Sponsor you for a Visa

In choosing the best agency, you have to consider a few things.

1.     Do they sponsor for H1b/Greencard/Both?

Ideal world: sponsored for H1b and Greencard concurrently

H1b allows you to work after 14 days (with premium processing and if the H1b quota is not yet reached). H1b is valid for 3 years. You have to work for the same employer (employer who sponsored you) for 3 years.

Green card allows you to work for 10 years and can be converted to U.S. citizenship if you desire. Green card also requires you to work for your sponsor only the first 6 months of sponsorship. After that (with employment authorization), you can work wherever you want. However, it generally takes 6 to 8 months to process, sometimes even longer. Having both makes is very convenient.

Real world: Most agencies sponsor for H1b. They will offer to sponsor you for green card after 6 months of employment. This is a fair deal

Bottom line: Try to get a green card sponsorship as soon as you can.

2.      How long is the contract?

Ideal world: No contract

Real world: Most agencies offer a contract of 2-3 years. A two-year contract is considered fair.

Bottom line: Try to get the shortest contract possible

3.      How much is the salary?

Ideal world: 50,000-55,000 dollars for a new grad depending on the location

Real world: The rate of pay is fixed in accordance with labor certification mandates specific for each state= approximately 20-24 per hour. This is somewhere around 40-45,000 a year on a 40 hour work week. 45,000-50,000 dollars would be fair depending on the location.

Bottom line: Aim as high as you can but not too much that you will scare the employer away. Don’t ask for more than 60,000 dollars for a fresh grad. Also remember that the cost of living is different for different locations even if it is in the same state.

4.      How much is the breach of contract?

Ideal world: none, no payment from both parties

Real world: Agencies usually charge between 2,000 to 5,000 dollars for breach of contract. Some contracts will allow you to pay less after a certain period of time. Some contracts require you to pay more than 50,000 dollars. A fixed sum of about 2,000-5,000 dollars explicitly stated in your contract is considered fair.

Bottom line: Ask a lawyer to review your contract. Make sure you don’t sign off all your earning and your future earnings. Also, some contracts cannot be enforced. This might be because it is against the federal or state laws. Make sure that everything is clearly stated in your contract.

5.      What are the benefits?

Ideal world: at least 2-3 weeks vacation time which may or may not include Holidays, Personal days and Sick days. Medical and Dental insurance after 4-6 months of hire; tuitions reimbursement/ exam fees reimbursement are all good benefits.

Real world: Most agencies provide at least 2 weeks of vacation time and 5 holidays. Medical insurance is usually covered after 4 to 6 months of employment.

Bottom line: The more benefits you can get the better. Remember however that since they are sponsoring you for H1b or green card, it is difficult to ask for too much.

6.      How much are the fees?

Ideal world: Fixed price 1,000-5,000 dollars a year.

Real world: Most agencies earn by salary deduction. They will give you a pre-determined hourly rate and charge the facility 2-3x your hourly rate.

Bottom line: As long as your workload is not excessive, and that you get a fair wage, all is fair. They need to make money, too. It is their business. Remember working for agencies is only a temporary situation. Good luck!







Alabama (AL)





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Missouri (MO)





Montana (MT)





Nebraska (NE)





  HOW THE PT EXAM IS WRITTEN... By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 12 Jul 2010
  Each question on the exam has 3 parts.
1. The stem: background information
2. The lead-in: question being asked
3. The options

Every item is made up of three parts. First, there is the stem, which provides background information, such as a clinical vignette. Next, there is the lead-in, or the actual question being asked. And finally, there are the options or answer choices. Three to five options are acceptable, but four are preferred. The correct response is referred to as the key and incorrect answers are referred to as distractors.  Note the example shown here; this is called an A-type item. Later, we’ll introduce you to another category you’ll use, called a G-type item.  You are probably familiar with other question types, such as true/false, multiple-multiple choice— or select all that apply — and matching. However, to maintain consistency of specialist certification items contained in the test bank, we’ll restrict our discussion to A- and G-type questions. If you’d like more information about why these other item types are not used, refer to the ABPTS or NMBE item writing guide, both of which can be found in the Resources area.  Next, we’ll take a closer look at the three item elements: the stem, lead-in, and options.                            
In addition to providing background information, the stem provides information relevant to the material being assessed and to the question being asked. Typically, it takes the form of a clinical vignette, which is important to test application of knowledge and not simply rote memory.  The stem can contain any tests and measures that would be useful in answering the question, such as charts, range of motion information, or photos. When possible, provide opportunities for practitioners to analyze related evidence to test their ability to synthesize data to arrive at the correct answer.  The stem and lead-in should be in the form of a complete sentence, never a fill in the blank. Fill-in-the-blank type questions are more likely to test simple recall. Also, the language used must be positive, meaning we do not ask what is least likely to happen or whether a patient may exhibit all symptoms except one, and so on. We ask what is likely to happen or what symptoms will be exhibited. We’ll talk more about the use of positive language shortly.           
The question is presented in this order.
1. Age and gender
2. Site of care
3. Presenting complaint
4. Duration of symptoms
5. Detailed family and medical history (with tables/photos)

Written vignette will allow you to keep all answer options short and succinct. For instance, examiner might write, “A 53-year-old female visits a physical therapist, complaining of shoulder pain” instead of “A 53-year-old female visits your office, complaining of shoulder pain.”  Use the active voice. For example, you should write, “A physical therapist examined a 35-year-old male,” instead of presenting the information in the passive voice, such as: “A 35-year-old male was examined by a physical therapist.”  Also, avoid using abbreviations in stems. It is difficult — if not impossible — to be sure that they would be recognized nationally by test takers.        

A 63-year-old male with Parkinson’s disease was recently transferred from a hospital to a skilled nursing facility. During the first consultation, the physical therapist notes that the patient’s usual medications were discontinued during hospitalization and he is having profound difficulty with his movement and mobility. What should the therapist do first?

Options are the answer choices provided. We’ll discuss the characteristics of good options shortly, but for now just keep in mind that the correct answer is referred to as the key and the incorrect answers are referred to as distractors.  And there can be only one correct answer.  Note that although three to five options are acceptable, the National Board of Medical Examiners recommends a total of four options, unless it makes logical sense to have fewer. For example, options for increased, decreased, or no change.   The majority of the current item bank items employ one key and three distractors; new items must be consistent with this presentation.  See the References section for citations to articles that discuss testing options further.       

Now let’s take a look at the some of the general characteristics of an item. Many of these are common sense while others may be less obvious:  The item must reflect information that is important for the specialist to know. Don’t spend your time writing questions against minutiae. The item content must be realistic and relevant. In other words, it should address a situation typically encountered by the specialist. Item content should be noncontroversial. For example, don’t link a question to current, major legal actions. Issues addressed by the item should be universal rather than regional. You would not expect a national certification exam to include protocols particular to one area of the country. The basis for items should not be too new. In other words, it would not be realistic to expect test takers to know about a paper published the day you wrote the item. Conversely, items cannot be based on obsolete information. When possible, incorporate data that is no more than five or six years old. And most importantly, items must be evidence-based and supported by references. Every item you include requires two references so that, if a correct answer is disputed, it can be supported with relevant evidence. Items can never be based on information you think that “everyone simply knows.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ref: APTA website                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
  IMPORTANT CONTACTS PRE-LICENSURE By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 26 Jan 2008



Processing Time


H1b Visa for PT

15-180 days

$320.00 - $2320.00

H1b Transfer or Renewal

15-180 days

$320.00 - $1870.00

Green Card (I-140) for PT

4-8 months


Adjustment of Status (I-485)

1-2 years


For more information, click on this link to United States Citizenship and Immigration Services.

Proficiency Exams


Processing Time



Depends on either PBT/CBT/iBT



Included in TOEFL exam

$50.00 for rescore


5-6 weeks


For more information, click on this link to Educational Testing Service.

Credentialing Agencies


Processing Time


International Credentialing Associates
7245 Bryan Dairy Road
Bryan Dairy Business Park II
Largo, FL 33777
Phone: (727)549-8555
Fax: (727)549-8554

12 weeks


International Consultants of Delaware, Inc P.O. Box 8629
Philadelphia, PA 19101-8629
TEL: (215) 222-8454 ext. 510
FAX: (215) 349-0026
Web site:
E-mail: [email protected]

14 days


Educational Credential Evaluators, Inc.
PO Box 514070
Milwaukee WI 53203-3470 USA
414-289-3400 |
[email protected]


1, 5, or 12 business days (depending on the type of service you choose)


Alexandria, Virginia 22314-1917
Telephone: 703-684-8406
Fax: 703-684-8715

16 weeks


International Education Research Foundation, Inc.
Post Office Box 3665
Culver City, CA 90231-3665
Phone: 310.258.9451
Fax: 310.342.7086

At least 60 days


  COLLEGE LEVEL EXAMINATION PROGRAM (CLEP) By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 02 Apr 2008

College Level Examination Program (CLEP) for Physical Therapists with Deficiencies in General Education Courses

The College-Level Examination Program® (CLEP) gives you the opportunity to receive college credit for what you already know by earning qualifying scores on any of 34 examinations. Earn credit for knowledge you've acquired through independent study, prior course work, on-the-job training, professional development, cultural pursuits, or internships.

The cost of a CLEP exam is $65, a fraction of the tuition and fees for the corresponding course. Most colleges and universities grant credit for CLEP exams, but not all. There are 2,900 institutions that grant credit for CLEP and each of them sets its own CLEP policy; in other words, each institution determines for which exams credit is awarded, the scores required and how much credit will be granted. Therefore, before you take a CLEP exam, check directly with the college or university you plan to attend to make sure that grants credit for CLEP and review the specifics of its policy.

Not all colleges award the same amount of CLEP credit for individual tests. Furthermore, some colleges place a limit on the total amount of credit you can earn through CLEP or other exams. Other colleges may grant you exemption but no credit toward your degree. Knowing several colleges' policies concerning these issues may help you decide which college to attend. If you think you can pass a number of CLEP exams, you may want to attend a college that will allow you to earn credit for all or most of them.

The College-Level Examination Program has a policy that candidates may not repeat a CLEP exam of the same title within six months. Scores of exams repeated earlier than six months will be canceled and test fees forfeited.

Colleges usually award CLEP credit only to their enrolled students. There are other stipulations, however, that vary from college to college. CLEP exams are administered at approximately 1,300 test centers located on college campuses across the United States and around the world. Find one near you using the CLEP Test Centers search. Then, contact the test center directly to find out its registration procedure. Be sure to ask about its service fee and testing schedule, and parking/transportation information.

Editor’s note:

CLEP is useful when you are already here in the United States since most of the courses here cost a lot more than $65. However, if you are still in your country, a good option will be to study at your local accredited college to make up for these deficiencies.

CLEP testing centers are located all over the world. Visit their website for more details at www.collegeboard.com



College-Level Examination Program (CLEP)

P.O. Box 6600
Princeton, NJ 08541-6600

Phone: (800) 257-9558
Fax: (609) 771-7088
Email: [email protected]

PTSponsor.com does not warrant the accuracy or validity of the information and hereby disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the site. PTSponsor.com also is not responsible for any material or information contained in the linked sites provided. The information presented at this site should not be construed to be formal legal advice or the formation of any relationship.

Social Security Number for Non-Citizens or Foreign Workers

Updated March 2008

To apply for a Social Security number and card, complete and application for a Social Security Card (Form SS-5); and show original documents or copies certified by the issuing agency proving: U.S. citizenship or immigration status [including Department of Homeland Security (DHS) permission to work in the United States];

Age; and Identity.

Then, take or mail your completed application and documents to your local Social Security office.

Citizenship or immigration status:

They only accept certain documents as proof of U.S. citizenship. These include a U.S. birth certificate, U.S. consular report of birth, U.S. passport, Certificate of Naturalization or Certificate of Citizenship.

If you are not a U.S. citizen, Social Security will ask to see your current U.S. immigration documents. Acceptable documents include your:

  • Form I-551 (includes machine-readable immigrant visa with your unexpired foreign passport);
  • I-94 with your unexpired foreign passport; or
  • Work permit card from the Department of Homeland Security (I-766 or I-688B).
  • International students must present further documentation. For more information, see International Students And Social Security Numbers (Publication No. 05-10181).

Age: You must present your birth certificate if you have it or can easily obtain it. If not, they can consider other documents, such as your passport to prove age.

Identity: An acceptable document must be current (not expired) and show your name, identifying information and preferably a recent photograph. Social Security will ask to see a U.S. driver’s license, state-issued nondriver identification card or U.S. passport as proof of identity. If you do not have the specific documents they ask for, they will ask to see other documents including:

  • Employee ID card;
  • School ID card;
  • Marriage document;
  • Health insurance card (not a Medicare card);
  • U.S. military ID card;
  • Adoption decree; or
  • Life insurance policy.

All documents must be either originals or copies certified by the issuing agency. They cannot accept photocopies or notarized copies of documents. They may use one document for two purposes. For example, they may use your U.S. passport as proof of both citizenship and identity. Or, they may use your U.S. birth certificate as proof of age and citizenship. However, you must provide at least two separate documents.

They will mail your number and card as soon as they have all of your information and have verified your documents with the issuing offices.

There is no charge for a Social Security number and card.

They issue three types of Social Security cards. All cards show your name and Social Security number.

  1. The first type of card shows your name and Social Security number and lets you work without restriction.
  2. The second type of card shows your name and number and notes, “VALID FOR WORK ONLY WITH DHS AUTHORIZATION.”
  3. The third type of card shows your name and number and notes, “NOT VALID FOR EMPLOYMENT.”



Your Social Security Number And Card

SSA Publication No. 05-10002, October 2006 (Recycle prior editions), ICN 451384

  RETROGRESSION AND THE SCHEDULE A PROFESSION By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 09 Apr 2008

Retrogression and the Schedule A Profession

On November 1, 2006, the Department of State enacted retrogression for Schedule A nurses and physical therapists. Retrogression refers to the resulting delay in obtaining an immigrant visa when there are more people applying for immigrant visas in a given year than the total number of visas available. The applicant cannot file an Application to Adjust Status (Form I-485) or obtain an immigrant visa by attending an immigrant visa interview at a U.S. Consulate abroad. Applicants must wait in line until the immigrant visa becomes available.

For Schedule A petitions, the priority date is the date the Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker (form I-140) was received by the USCIS. Each month, the U.S. Department of State issues a “Visa Bulletin” which announces the priority dates eligible for immigrant visas in each category. This information can be found at the U.S. Department of State website http://travel.state.gov/visa/frvi/bulletin/bulletin_4177.html

Immigrant visa petitions for Schedule A occupations generally fall within the “EB-3” category. This category has been “retrogressed” since 2005. An applicant in this category must have a priority date of April 22, 2001 to July 1, 2005 depending upon their country of birth. However, legislation passed in 2005 allocated an additional 50,000 immigrant visas specifically for Schedule A petitions and created a new EB-3 subcategory, “EX” for these visas. Unfortunately, this special allocation of 50,000 immigrant visas is exhausted. The priority date for the EX category is October 1, 2005. Therefore, as of November 1, 2005, an applicant for an immigrant visa based upon a Schedule A petition would have needed to have filed the I-140 petition on or before October 1, 2005 to be immediately eligible for an immigrant visa.

U.S. Consulates will not assign interview dates and will not be able to issue immigrant visas to Nurses and Physical Therapists until retrogression for Schedule A category (“EX”) is resolved. As of November 1, 2005, the ability to “concurrently file” the I-140 and I-485 will be temporarily unavailable. An I-140 petition can still be filed, but the Application to Adjust Status (Form I-485) which provides authorization to remaining the United States and eligibility for employment authorization cannot be filed.



United States Citizenship and Immigration Services. www.uscis.gov

“Before contacting the USCIS, USCIS may be able to help you if you have a question about immigration procedures, or need clarification, by calling the USCIS National Customer Service Center (NCSC) at 1-800-375-5283 (TTY 1-800-767-1833). This toll-free call center has additional information and, during their specified office hours, can connect you to live assistance in English and Spanish. The NCSC will be able to answer most questions - although they cannot provide information about the status of your case over the telephone.”

PTSponsor.com does not warrant the accuracy or validity of the information and hereby disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the site. PTSponsor.com also is not responsible for any material or information contained in the linked sites provided. The information presented at this site should not be construed to be formal legal advice or the formation of any relationship.

  DEFICIENCY MAKEUP PROGRAM By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 30 Mar 2008

Deficiency Make-Up Program

DMP stands for Deficiency Make-up Program, a special program designed exclusively for HCMI Physical Therapist candidates who eventually want to practice Physical Therapy in the US.

This program is usually applicable to physical therapists trained in India who lack general education credits and are deemed equivalent with professional education credits.

The DMP was inaugurated in April, 2006 and they are currently pursuing their third batch of students at the Bishop Heber College in Southern India. The DMP as an intensive six-month long program is divided into two or three terms. All the terms will entail rigorous instruction in the General Education courses mentioned above. On the other hand, DMP candidates will receive a 7-10 day holiday period during the six -month long DMP program. They currently charge three thousand dollars ($3,000) for the six month program.

DMP guarantees that your education will be equivalent to that of a US Physical Therapist; your eligibility to pass a credential evaluation in over 30 states; your application will be done in the fastest and cheapest way possible.

Editor’s Note:

This is actually not the fastest the cheapest way possible. You can take the courses you are deficient on any accredited local college. Also, depending on the state boards, you can take CLEP. CLEP exams just cost $65 dollars. There are more than 1000 testing centers worldwide. For more information, see our article about CLEP.



DMP. Taken from http://www.hcmieducation.org.

  CREDENTIALING PROBLEMS By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 19 Apr 2008

If you have deficiencies in your credits, here are the following things you can do:

  1. Talk to the credentialing agency. Ask them what you can do so that you can be at par with the U.S. standard. Usually, credentialing agencies have suggestions such as taking a continuing education course, taking an online course, going back to college (we hope you will not resort to this) and so forth…
  2. Contact your school to provide evidence that this deficiency was already taken. There are two types of deficiencies: a.) You do not have enough credit units. b.) You did not have supporting documents to prove that you indeed took the course.  Your school can help you in both situations.

For example, your credentialing report states that you only have 67 professional units and you lack geriatric rehabilitation.

The state you are applying for requires 69 professional units. As you were reading your report, you noticed that they did not credit you for undergraduate thesis, a 3-credit course. You can ask your school to provide them a letter that your undergraduate thesis is equivalent to a U.S. course called Research Methods. Assuming a multiplying factor of 1 foreign credit is to 0.75 U.S. credit, you will gain 2.25 credits on your credentialing report. This will raise your units into 69.25.

How about the deficient course? As with the example above, the credentialing agency did not credit you for geriatric rehabilitation. You know very well that you took this course in one of your subjects but with a different name. Maybe, you took it on Medical-Surgical Lectures? Medical Rehabilitation Lectures? Theory and Technique? It is up to you. You try to think clearly which subject you took geriatric rehabilitation and ask you school to provide evidence that this subject is indeed taken on a particular course with a different name.

  1. Contact your state board. You have contacted your school and you still have a few subjects deficient… You contacted the credentialing agency and they said that they have reviewed the additional documentation you have provided, however, it is still not at par with the U.S. standard. The next step is to contact the state board.

For example, the credentialing report states that you lack wound debridement (integumentary rehabilitation) and pharmacology. You are sure that you did not take this course on your undergraduate degree. Ask them if you can take a continuing education course, or an online course. Some state boards will allow you to take a continuing education course. This is very helpful when you are in the U.S. There are a lot of wound debridement courses around (because of the certification to become a certified wound specialist). Also, there is a lot of online continuing education available. For example, A.T. Still University caters to students applying for a physical therapy license who lack some credits. The courses taken in A.T. Still University are purely online.  You can easily take a pharmacology course with them and finish it in 6 weeks.

Remember! Before you take any course, be sure to check with the state board first. They will ultimately decide if they will accept an online course or not. There are times that credentialing agencies won’t accept a course but the state board will. Follow the state board, they have the authority to grant you the physical therapy license.

  READ THIS FIRST!!! By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 31 May 2008

Thinking About Working in the United States as a Physical Therapist???

Editors of www.PTSponsor.com

Best States: http://ptsponsor.com/best_state.php

In order to work in the U.S. as a physical therapist (PT), you need to undergo a series of steps. First, you have to choose which state you would like to practice. Each state has their own minimum credit requirements, English proficiency requirements, credentialing agencies they use or if they grant a limited permit or not. This is very crucial in getting a license. Your education might be deemed equivalent in one state but might be deficient in another state. PTSponsor.com compares all 50 states based on their license requirements, cost of living and average salary. We have listed each state’s contact information, credentialing agencies accepted, English proficiency or internship requirements and much more.

NPTE: http://ptsponsor.com/npte.php

After you have applied for licensure in the state of your choice, you need to review for the National Physical Therapy Exam (NPTE). This is a multiple choice exam administered only in the United States by the Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy (FSBPT). PTSponsor.com lists down all the important reviewers you will ever need to pass the NPTE. We update this section periodically based on our surveys from recent exam takers. We have also detailed how to apply for the NPTE and what to expect while taking the exam.

Visa Options: http://ptsponsor.com/immigration.php

As mentioned earlier, you have to take the NPTE in the United States. You need to apply for a tourist visa at your nearest embassy. You have to go back to your country of origin after you have taken the exam. This is because green card visa numbers are not current for physical therapists. PTSponsor.com updates the announcements page monthly to provide you with the current visa bulletin as released by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).

In order to work as a physical therapist in the U.S., you have 2 options—H1-B or green card. You can apply for both. H1-B is the fastest way. You need to find a sponsor who will file your petition with the USCIS by April 1. Once your application is approved, you can start working October of that year. We have detailed descriptions, work requirements and H1-B quota restrictions on our website.

You can also be sponsored for green card. This involved filing I-140 (employer sponsorship) and I-485 (adjustment of status). Concurrent filing is not possible at this moment because the visa numbers are not current. The green card process takes about 2-4 years. We have a side by side comparison of H1-B and green card on our website. 

Agencies and Immigration Lawyer Reviews: http://ptsponsor.com/all_agencies.php and http://ptsponsor.com/all_lawyers.php

Horror stories of agencies letting you work way below the prevailing wage or greedy lawyers who charged desperate foreign physical therapists have been told. It is no wonder that most foreign physical therapists are very cautious in migrating into the United States. We have reviewed agencies and have rated them on our website. This way you can make an informed decision. We prefer direct hire over agencies. This is because agencies get a cut from your salary. You get 100% of your salary if you work directly for hospitals and clinics. This is why we have a job listing on our website. You can find hospitals and clinics who are willing to sponsor foreign physical therapists directly.

Much, much more…

We have so much more to offer in our website. We have articles section where we discuss credential deficiencies, retrogression… http://ptsponsor.com/articles.php We have a forum where you can talk with fellow PTs and answer each other’s question. http://ptsponsor.com/forum.php We have an expense tracker where you can tell us the state of your choice and we can give you a rough estimate of how much your expenses might be http://ptsponsor.com/expense_adv.php …..

And much, much more!!!!

One site has it all, visit us now at www.PTSponsor.com!

  TOEFL, BEST REVIEWERS By: Editors of PTsponsor.com Date Posted 14 Jun 2008

If you are planning to work in the U.S., chances are, you need to take TOEFL. TOEFL is “test of English as Foreign Language”. TOEFL is required in most states in order to get a physical therapy license. Click on this link to check if the state of your choice requires TOEFL. http://ptsponsor.com/best_state.php TOEFL is also required to get the visa screen (for green card purposes).

The TOEFL iBT measures skills in reading, listening, speaking and writing, and requires you to combine 2 or more of these skills to respond to a question. For example, you might read a passage or listen to a lecture in English, and then write or speak your answers in English. Here are sample test questions from their website. http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/TOEFL/exe/toeflSample.exe

Structure of the TOEFL iBT



Testing Time


Score Scale


3-5 passages from academic texts; approximately 700 words long; 12-14 questions per passage.

60-100 minutes

36-70 questions



4-6 lectures, some with classroom discussion; each 3-5 minutes long; 6 questions each. 2-3 conversations; each 3 minutes long; 5 questions each.

60-90 minutes

34-51 questions




10 minutes




2 tasks to express an opinion on a familiar topic; 4 tasks to speak based on what is read and listened to.

20 minutes

6 tasks

0-4 points converted to 0-30 score scale


1 task to write based on what is read and listened to; 1 task to support an opinion on a topic.

50 minutes

2 tasks

0-5 points converted to 0-30 score scale

Total score





Source: www.ets.org/toefl

In order to review for TOEFL, the most important thing is that you practice for the test and its format. In our opinion, any book from the library or bookstore about TOEFL ibt would suffice. However, if you want hands-on experience sot that you can get the actual feel of the test, here are a few websites we recommend.

  1. www.onlinenglish.net
  2. www.LearnEnglish.com
  3. www.EffortlessEnglishClub.com
  4. www.toeflgoanywhere.org
  5. www.toeflibtcourse.com/
  6. toeflpractice.ets.org

In rare cases where a candidate cannot obtain a Social Security Number, an “Alternate Identification Number” (AIN) may be obtained from FSBPT by application. You may print an application for an Alternate Identification Number by clicking on this link www.fsbpt.org/NPTE/AINApp. The issuance of an AIN is solely for the purpose of registering for examinations or services through the FSBPT when a candidate cannot obtain a Social Security Number. The AIN is not a substitute for a Social Security Number for any other purpose. Therefore, you cannot use your AIN to apply for bank accounts or obtain a driver’s license.

Applicants should retain their AIN and utilize it concerning all correspondence, inquiries, or requests relating to their licensure examination. Completed forms should be mailed to FSBPT, Exam Services, 124 West Street South, 3rd Floor, Alexandria, Virginia 22314.

Source: www.fsbpt.org

  FCCPT’S DEFICIENCY MAKE-UP P.L.A.N. By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 14 Jun 2008

The Foreign Credentialing Commission on Physical Therapy has a new service to assist foreign educated candidates. This service assists those foreign educated candidates that were deemed NOT to have a substantially equivalent education to U.S. physical therapy graduates. The Planned Learning Assistance Network (P.L.A.N.) counselor identifies deficiencies and appropriate professional education courses that candidates could take. The goal would be for those foreign educated candidates to obtain an education substantially equivalent to the first professional PT degree in the U.S. The common content area deficiencies in professional education are administration/management, cardiopulmonary system, community health/wellness, differential diagnosis, evaluation—clinical decision making, geriatrics, integumentary system, legal and ethics aspects (professional behaviors), pediatrics, and pharmacology and supervised clinical practice.

Many courses are taught in transitional DPT curricula and are conveniently provided in a distance education model. Here is a short list of APTA-accredited schools that you might consider:

AT Still University
Lori M Bordenave, PT, MEd
Acting Chair, Physical Therapy
Arizona School of Health Sciences
5850 East Still Circle
Mesa, AZ 85206
FAX: 480 219-6100
Phone: 480 219-6000

Florida Gulf Coast University
Sharon Bevins, PT, PhD
Chair and Program Director
Department of Physical Therapy and Human Performance
10501 FGCU Blvd. South
Ft. Myers, FL 33965-6565
Phone(239) 590-7530
Fax: (239) 590-7474

MGH Institute of Health Professions
Maura Daly Iversen, PT, MPH, SD
Professor and Associate Director
Charlestown Navy Yard
36 First Avenue
Boston, MA 02129-4557
Tel: 617-724-6446
FAX: 617-724-6321

Programs for international students
New York Institute of Technology
Karen Friel, PT, DHS
Department of Physical Therapy
500 Building, Room 501
Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000
Phone: (516) 686-7651
Fax: (516) 686-7699

This format is especially conducive to the foreign educated candidate. Other content areas may be met using an independent studies model which might be onsite as well as online.

Source: www.fccpt.org


Editor’s Note:

In our opinion, the best option is to ask your batch mates or class mates which courses were deemed deficient on their evaluation. You must also ask them which credentialing agency they used. For general education courses that are deemed deficient, try to make-up theses courses locally. Most local colleges offer these courses at reasonable prices. For professional education courses that are deemed deficient, try to make up these courses at an accredited local physical therapy university that offers master’s or doctorate’s degree in physical therapy. For all other courses, you can contact any of the universities listed above. Most of the universities listed offer their courses online and you can complete these courses at your home country.

FCCPT’s Fee for full service P-L-A-N is U.S. $350.00. Applicants who do not wish to apply for the full services may purchase portions of the service at a rate based upon 30-minute time frames. Fee for Hourly services is U.S. $100.00 per 1/2 hour. Before a P.L.A.N. service, you have to complete an Educational Credentials Service which costs $465.00 or Type I Service which costs $660.00. After you have completed all the courses, you have to pay for a re-evaluation which costs $210.00. Why not complete all you deficiencies first before applying for FCCPT credentials verification? This way you save a lot of time and money.

  PERMANENT PLACEMENT VERSUS TRAVELING By: pisikal_terapist Date Posted 10 Jul 2008

Permanent Placement:  This generally means a job where you are placed for a definite period of time to last until the end of your contract.  Any rehab setting is seen here: acute, home health, out-patient etc.  Typical assignment length is usually the length of the contract (1 year to 3 years)

Traveling: This indicates that a therapist will be transferred to different PT institutions/clinics/hospitals etc.  This is done after several times within a signed contract length.  The length of each individual assignment depends on the agency, but I have commonly seen 13 weeks to 6 months assignments within a certain facility and a contract length of 1 to 3 years.

Requirements/Job Qualifications:

Permanent Placement:  Any foreign-educated PT is qualified in this position as long as they have obtained a license within the state.

Traveling: This position usually calls for individuals who are single or married but without school aged children.  This is not done to discriminate the individual, but to protect the PT from the possible family problems that may occur with constant moving.  The job usually calls for individuals with 1 year driving experience and basic automotive maintenance skills.  Credentialing must meet the current FSBPT CWT to be able to easily transfer to another state.


Permanent Placement:
  1. Opportunity for career growth within the facility. Typically, agencies and direct hire facilities stipulate within contracts the length of time before requests for salary increase (and increase of managerial duties) is usually 1 year.  Permanent placement positions usually last more than a year, and such, negotiations for raises and more job responsibilities may be made.
  2. Long-lasting professional relationships and friendships.  Without the hassle of constant moving, you have the opportunity to make and foster long-lasting friendships.  There is also the security in a workplace that cannot be achieved by traveling therapists.
  1. Free housing.  Most, if not all traveling agencies offer free housing within the contract period. This is usually in the form of an 1-room apartment.  This is great for those who have just migrated to the US because it cuts the costs.  Usually, the traveling agency also pays for the furniture rental.  I had an interview with this certain agency and was told that if I wanted a bigger apartment, the additional cost of attaining one should be shouldered by me.  Recruiters usually use this as a trump card because you can save a lot of money with free rent (you just have to pay for amenities).  And they usually tell you that you can move in with literally only your suitcase.  Appliances, bedsheets, curtains etc are provided by the agency.
  2. Free transportation or car loan plans. Newly migrated PTs have difficulty obtaining loans for cars; most agencies provide a company car or car loan plans that will be met throughout the contract period.
  3. Free gas: Most of the traveling PT's are given gas cards or reimbursed for job-related traveling.
  4. Free licensure processing.  In endorsing your license, the agency will pay the fees for transfer to another state and help you in obtaining the license.

Note: This is list is not definite, but contains at least the minimal benefits you should receive.

The Cons:

Permanent Placement:
  1. Usually there is no free housing. At the most, there are units made available by the company at lower rates.  But some companies have free housing units (according to what I have heard), but I have yet to talk to a recruiter that offers such.
  2. Individuals who are unsatisfied with the work conditions of their current facility are stuck with them for the duration of the contract.  Personally, I do not recommend breaching contracts due to the cost and the professionalism involved.  Other employers may become wary of employing such individuals, and if another company buys out your contract, there is usually something in return (decreased salary, less benefits)
  1. Constant moving. Yes, traveling is great.  But after a length of time, it becomes boring.   You may be assigned to a remote area.  Relationships are at a 13-week or 6-month duration, then after, it is then considered long-distance.  Recruiters constantly tell you that your preference in location will be given consideration in assignments, but at the end of the day, the agency will still place you in an area that would be most profitable for them.
  2. Families are the ones affected.  It would be very difficult to remain a traveling physical therapist if your spouse is involved in a permanent placement position, PT related or not.  Children also have a difficult time in adjusting to the constant change.  As stated earlier, PTs with school age children are usually not given traveling jobs because it will affect the child's attendance in school.

Permanent Placement:
  1. Bilinguals Inc./Axiom Link: www.bilingualsinc.com
  2. O'Grady Peyton: www.ograyypeyton.com
       > Also offers traveling PT after finishing their contract or for US-grads
  3. Interface Rehab: www.interfacerehab.com
       > Also offers traveling positions within CA
       > Note: CA is usually a difficult state to enter for migrating workers due to     SSN requirements.
  4. Julie Edmunds Associates: http://www.juliaedmunds.com/
  1. Atlas Rehabilitation: www.atlasrehabilitation.com
  2. PPR Healthcare: www.pprhealthcare.com

These are just some of the agencies I have contacted.  I will update the list again when I have the time.  Please also refer to:


for a comprehensive view of the agencies and their ratings.  Hope this helps.  Feel free to post questions.  Good luck and God Bless!

What is an EAD?

Certain aliens who are temporarily in the United States may file a Form I-765, Application for Employment Authorization, to request an Employment Authorization Document (EAD), which authorizes them to work legally in the U.S. during the time the EAD is valid.

Who is eligible for an EAD that is valid for two years?

The two-year EAD is available to pending adjustment applicants (i.e., those who have filed a Form I-485, Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status) who have filed for an EAD under Section 274.a.12(c)(9) of Title 8, Code of Federal Regulations (8 C.F.R.) and who are currently unable to adjust status because an immigrant visa number is not currently available. USCIS will continue to grant EADs that are valid for one-year for adjustment applicants who have an available immigrant visa number and are filing for employment authorization under 8 C.F.R. Section 274a.12(c)(9). In order to be eligible for an EAD with a two year validity period, an applicant’s I-140, Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker, must be approved.

When will applicants expect to receive the new two-year EAD?

USCIS expects to implement this initiative for cases pending on June 30, 2008. Applicants filing Form I-765 under 8 C.F.R., Section 274.a.12(c)(9) should begin to receive their two-year EAD a couple of weeks after the anticipated June 30, 2008 implementation date.

Where can someone get more information on the new EADs?

For further information, please review the USCIS Update on the new two-year EAD posted online at: http:/www.uscis.gov.

Will applicants get a two-year EAD when they file an I-765 with their I-485 adjustment of status application?

Generally no. Initial EAD filings will generally receive an EAD that is valid for one- year because they are usually submitted with the Form I-485 that can only be filed when there is an immigrant visa number immediately available to the individual. Applicants are only eligible for a two-year EAD if their immigrant visa availability date retrogresses (i.e., when actual demand for visa numbers exceeds forecasted supply) after the Form I-485 is filed. If an immigrant visa number is available, USCIS will grant the one-year EAD.

How will USCIS decide whether to issue an EAD valid for one or two years?

USCIS will decide whether to renew an EAD for either a one or two-year validity period based on the most recent Department of State Visa Bulletin available at http://travel.state.gov/visa/frvi/bulletin/bulletin_1360.html. If an applicant’s visa number has retrogressed and is unavailable, USCIS may issue a renewal EAD valid for two years. USCIS will continue to issue

the EAD in one-year increments when the Department of State Visa Bulletin shows an employment-based preference category is current as a whole or the applicant’s priority date is current.

If I am filing for a replacement EAD under 8 C.F.R., Section 274.a.12(c)(9), how long is the EAD valid?

If an individual requests to replace an EAD that has not expired, USCIS will issue a replacement EAD that is valid through the same date as the previously issued EAD. However, if the previous EAD has expired, USCIS will process the request for a renewal EAD and determine the appropriate validity period based on the Department of State Visa Bulletin and the applicant’s priority date.

If USCIS determines that an applicant has filed multiple Forms I-765, the agency may deny the applications for the replacement or renewal EAD.

Why is USCIS changing the validity period for some EADs?

USCIS views this change as a way to better serve its customer base, and in particular, persons who are waiting to become lawful permanent residents and are impacted by the lack of immigrant visa numbers.

On July 30, 2004, USCIS published an interim rule, "Employment Authorization Documents," at 69 Federal Reg. 45555. This interim rule authorized USCIS, in its discretion, to issue EADs with validity periods other than one year based on certain criteria deemed appropriate by the Department of Homeland Security.

I filed my Form I-765 more than 90 days ago and I have not received a decision, who should I contact?

If you have not received a decision within 90 days of the USCIS receipt date and you have properly filed your EAD application, you may apply to obtain an interim EAD by appearing in person at your local USCIS District Office. You must bring proof of identity and any notices that you have received from USCIS in connection with your application for employment authorization.

If I believe I have received an EAD with the wrong validity period or other incorrect information who should I contact?

If you believe that you have received the wrong validity period, you should contact the USCIS National Customer Service Center at 1-800-375-5283 or 1-800-767-1833 (TTY).

For additional information, or if your application has been approved and you have not received your EAD, please contact the USCIS National Customer Service Center at 1-800-375-5283 or 1-800-767-1833 (TTY)

source: www.uscis.gov

  IS POEA MAKING IT HARDER? By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 01 Oct 2008

Is POEA making it harder for Philippine physical therapists to work in the U.S.?

Editors of PTSponsor.com

In order for a foreign-trained physical therapist to work in the U.S, the candidate will undergo a licensing process, examinations, English proficiency exams and the immigration process. These steps take a lot of time, money and effort.

A sponsoring company has to invest a lot of resources on the candidate. For H1-b, the company has to petition the candidate by April1st, then “hope” that the candidate gets chosen by the computerized lottery process. If not selected, they have to wait for the next year. All the time, money and resources used will go to waste. Sponsoring a foreign-trained physical therapist is a gamble. Each candidate has a one out of three chance.

For Philippine-trained physical therapist, there is one extra step- the POEA process. Aside from the tedious step listed above, every employer should pay the POEA accredited agency for the exit clearance. The amount allowed by the POEA is equivalent to one month’s salary. At 25 dollars per hour, this can be up to 5,000 dollars. Also, each sponsoring employer should follow these rules:

  1. No foreign employer may hire a Filipino worker from the Philippines for overseas employment except through Philippine-licensed placement agencies or the Philippine Overseas Recruitment Agency (POEA). Foreign principals/employers who wish to advertise overseas job vacancies may do so only through a Philippine-licensed agency or through the POEA.
  2. A Filipino worker may, however, directly apply for employment to a foreign employer without the assistance of a placement agency or may also course his application through a placement agency. If he directly applies to foreign employer without the assistance or intervention of a Philippine-registered placement agency and is subsequently employed by the foreign employer, the procedure is called “Name-Hiring”

  3. The list of duly registered and in good standing placement agencies in the Philippines can be verified at www.poea.gov.ph. Foreign employers hiring employers through a recruitment entity or intermediaries not registered or in good standing with POEA may be held criminally and/or administratively liable under Philippine law.

  4. The general mode of hiring Filipino workers for private employment is through private Philippine-registered placement agency or the POEA. However, a Filipino national may directly apply to a foreign employer provided he was not assisted by a Philippine-registered placement agency through the so-called “Name-Hiring” process;

  5. If through private Philippine-registered placement agency, the employer must be submit the following to the Embassy for verification and authentication:

    a) Special Power of Attorney or Recruitment Agreement with the  Philippine registered placement agency;

    b) Manpower Request/Job Order stating the position and salary;

    c) Master Employment Contract;

    d) Business License/Company Registration

    e) Copy of Sponsorship Nomination Approval issued by DIMIA


  6. If the worker directly applied and secured the job from the principal employer through the Name-Hiring process, the employer must submit the following to the

    Embassy for verification and authentication:

    a) Employment Contract signed by principal employer;

    b) Business License/Company Registration;

    c) Copy of Sponsorship Nomination Approval issued by DIMIA


  7. Prior to sending the documents to the Philippine Embassy, all private documents must be authenticated first.

  8. In addition to the mandatory entitlements, the employment contract must contain the following minimum provisions prescribed by Philippine labor and social legislation:

    a) Guaranteed wages for regular work hours and overtime pay, which shall not be lower than the prescribed minimum wage for the particular position or not lower than the appropriate minimum wage standards set forth in a bilateral agreement or international convention, if applicable, or not lower than the minimum wage in the Philippines, whichever is highest;

    b) Free transportation to and from the worksite, or offsetting benefit;

    c) Free food and accommodation, or offsetting benefit;

    d) Just/authorized causes for termination of the contract or of the services of the workers taking into consideration the customs, traditions, mores, practices, company policies and the labor laws and social legislation.

  9. Upon verification and authentication of the documents required under paragraphs 5 and 6, the Philippine Embassy will return them to the principal employers who would subsequently send them to their appointed Philippine-registered placement agency or to the name hire, as the case may be.

  10. Unless otherwise agreed upon with the Philippine-registered placement agency, the principal employer shall be responsible for the payment of the following expenses of the worker/s to be hired:

    a) visa fee;

    b) airfare

    c) POEA processing fee; and

    d) membership fee to the Overseas Worker Welfare Agency (OWWA)

  11. There is an authentication fee per document. Payment may be made via postal money order or bank check to the Philippine Embassy. The application for authentication should also include a prepaid self-addressed envelope for the return of processed documents to the principal employer.

  12. All immigration consultancy agencies based in the Philippines and other similar entities which do not limit themselves to document facilitation and visa assistance for immigrants, but also engage in recruitment and placement activities are required to obtain a license with POEA regardless of the visa under which deployment shall be made eventually.

  13. Foreign-based immigration consultancy agencies and other similar entities are not allowed to engage in recruitment and placement activities, except through licensed agencies to which they may seek accreditation or registration.

  14. Individuals or business entities not duly registered with POEA and acting as intermediaries to facilitate the recruitment of Filipinos may be held criminally liable under Philippine laws. Likewise, the individuals or officers of said business entities may be blacklisted and barred from entering the Philippines.

With this list, do you think POEA is protecting its citizens from illegal recruitment or just making it harder for Philippine physical therapists. If the sponsoring company will follow all these steps, it will cost them at least 10,000 dollars easy. This is not required in other countries.

We will welcome your comments, and letters. Please post them on our forums or write us on the letters to the editor section.




  H1B QUOTA NOT REACHED THIS YEAR By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 15 Apr 2009

The H1-b quota was not reached this year. Here is the article from the USCIS website.

USCIS Updates Count of FY2010 H-1B Petition Filings

WASHINGTON—U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) today announced an updated number of filings for H-1B petitions for the fiscal year 2010 program.

USCIS has received approximately 42,000 H-1B petitions counting toward the Congressionally-mandated 65,000 cap. The agency continues to accept petitions subject to the general cap.

Additionally, the agency has received approximately 20,000 petitions for aliens with advanced degrees; however, we continue to accept advanced degree petitions since experience has shown that not all petitions received are approvable. Congress mandated that the first 20,000 of these types of petitions are exempt from any fiscal year cap on available H-1B visas.

For cases filed for premium processing during the initial five-day filing window, the 15-day premium processing period began April 7. For cases filed for premium processing after the filing window, the premium processing period begins on the date USCIS takes physical possession of the petition.

USCIS will provide regular updates as the processing of FY2010 H-1B petitions continue.

  U.S. VISA SPONSORSHIPS STILL AVAILABLE FOR THERAPISTS By: American Therapy Jobs Date Posted 23 May 2009


Visit our website today at www.AmericanTherapyJobs.blogspot.com, it has a lot of U.S. job openings posted everyday for Physical Therapists/Physiotherapists, Physical Therapist Assistants, PT Aides, Occupational Therapists, Certified Occupational Therapist Assistants and Speech-Language Pathologists job seekers out there!  

Hundreds of employers/companies are offering U.S. H1B/Working Visa (Cap or Non Cap) and/or Green Card Sponsorships. Sign-on bonuses are available, too. Please do check it out!  Thank You. 

Visit American Therapy Jobs Now!

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