» All Articles
» Pre-licensure
» Job related
» Post-licensure
     1. Median Wage by Occupation Across States (Nevada to Wyoming)
     2. Median Wage by Occupation Across States (Alabama to Nebraska)
     3. Social Security Number for Non-Citizens or Foreign Workers
     4. Permanent Placement versus Traveling
     5. USCIS to Issue Two-Year Employment Authorization Documents (EADs)
     6. Is POEA Making it Harder?
     7. H1b quota not reached this year
     Article Guidelines
Showing 1-7 of 7 View All  

Nevada (NV)




New Hampshire (NH)




New Jersey (NJ)




New Mexico (NM)




New York (NY)




North Carolina (NC)




North Dakota (ND)




Ohio (OH)




Oklahoma (OK)




Oregon (OR)




Pennsylvania (PA)




Puerto Rico (PR)




Rhode Island (RI)




South Carolina (SC)




South Dakota (SD)




Tennessee (TN)




Texas (TX)




United States




Utah (UT)




Vermont (VT)




Virgin Islands (VI)




Virginia (VA)




Washington (WA)




Washington, D.C.




West Virginia (WV)




Wisconsin (WI)




Wyoming (WY)










Alabama (AL)





Alaska (AK)





Arizona (AZ)





Arkansas (AR)





California (CA)





Colorado (CO)





Connecticut (CT)





Delaware (DE)





Florida (FL)





Georgia (GA)





Hawaii (HI)





Idaho (ID)





Illinois (IL)





Indiana (IN)





Iowa (IA)





Kansas (KS)





Kentucky (KY)





Louisiana (LA)





Maine (ME)





Maryland (MD)





Massachusetts (MA)





Michigan (MI)





Minnesota (MN)





Mississippi (MS)





Missouri (MO)





Montana (MT)





Nebraska (NE)






Social Security Number for Non-Citizens or Foreign Workers

Updated March 2008

To apply for a Social Security number and card, complete and application for a Social Security Card (Form SS-5); and show original documents or copies certified by the issuing agency proving: U.S. citizenship or immigration status [including Department of Homeland Security (DHS) permission to work in the United States];

Age; and Identity.

Then, take or mail your completed application and documents to your local Social Security office.

Citizenship or immigration status:

They only accept certain documents as proof of U.S. citizenship. These include a U.S. birth certificate, U.S. consular report of birth, U.S. passport, Certificate of Naturalization or Certificate of Citizenship.

If you are not a U.S. citizen, Social Security will ask to see your current U.S. immigration documents. Acceptable documents include your:

  • Form I-551 (includes machine-readable immigrant visa with your unexpired foreign passport);
  • I-94 with your unexpired foreign passport; or
  • Work permit card from the Department of Homeland Security (I-766 or I-688B).
  • International students must present further documentation. For more information, see International Students And Social Security Numbers (Publication No. 05-10181).

Age: You must present your birth certificate if you have it or can easily obtain it. If not, they can consider other documents, such as your passport to prove age.

Identity: An acceptable document must be current (not expired) and show your name, identifying information and preferably a recent photograph. Social Security will ask to see a U.S. driver’s license, state-issued nondriver identification card or U.S. passport as proof of identity. If you do not have the specific documents they ask for, they will ask to see other documents including:

  • Employee ID card;
  • School ID card;
  • Marriage document;
  • Health insurance card (not a Medicare card);
  • U.S. military ID card;
  • Adoption decree; or
  • Life insurance policy.

All documents must be either originals or copies certified by the issuing agency. They cannot accept photocopies or notarized copies of documents. They may use one document for two purposes. For example, they may use your U.S. passport as proof of both citizenship and identity. Or, they may use your U.S. birth certificate as proof of age and citizenship. However, you must provide at least two separate documents.

They will mail your number and card as soon as they have all of your information and have verified your documents with the issuing offices.

There is no charge for a Social Security number and card.

They issue three types of Social Security cards. All cards show your name and Social Security number.

  1. The first type of card shows your name and Social Security number and lets you work without restriction.
  2. The second type of card shows your name and number and notes, “VALID FOR WORK ONLY WITH DHS AUTHORIZATION.”
  3. The third type of card shows your name and number and notes, “NOT VALID FOR EMPLOYMENT.”



Your Social Security Number And Card

SSA Publication No. 05-10002, October 2006 (Recycle prior editions), ICN 451384

  PERMANENT PLACEMENT VERSUS TRAVELING By: pisikal_terapist Date Posted 10 Jul 2008

Permanent Placement:  This generally means a job where you are placed for a definite period of time to last until the end of your contract.  Any rehab setting is seen here: acute, home health, out-patient etc.  Typical assignment length is usually the length of the contract (1 year to 3 years)

Traveling: This indicates that a therapist will be transferred to different PT institutions/clinics/hospitals etc.  This is done after several times within a signed contract length.  The length of each individual assignment depends on the agency, but I have commonly seen 13 weeks to 6 months assignments within a certain facility and a contract length of 1 to 3 years.

Requirements/Job Qualifications:

Permanent Placement:  Any foreign-educated PT is qualified in this position as long as they have obtained a license within the state.

Traveling: This position usually calls for individuals who are single or married but without school aged children.  This is not done to discriminate the individual, but to protect the PT from the possible family problems that may occur with constant moving.  The job usually calls for individuals with 1 year driving experience and basic automotive maintenance skills.  Credentialing must meet the current FSBPT CWT to be able to easily transfer to another state.


Permanent Placement:
  1. Opportunity for career growth within the facility. Typically, agencies and direct hire facilities stipulate within contracts the length of time before requests for salary increase (and increase of managerial duties) is usually 1 year.  Permanent placement positions usually last more than a year, and such, negotiations for raises and more job responsibilities may be made.
  2. Long-lasting professional relationships and friendships.  Without the hassle of constant moving, you have the opportunity to make and foster long-lasting friendships.  There is also the security in a workplace that cannot be achieved by traveling therapists.
  1. Free housing.  Most, if not all traveling agencies offer free housing within the contract period. This is usually in the form of an 1-room apartment.  This is great for those who have just migrated to the US because it cuts the costs.  Usually, the traveling agency also pays for the furniture rental.  I had an interview with this certain agency and was told that if I wanted a bigger apartment, the additional cost of attaining one should be shouldered by me.  Recruiters usually use this as a trump card because you can save a lot of money with free rent (you just have to pay for amenities).  And they usually tell you that you can move in with literally only your suitcase.  Appliances, bedsheets, curtains etc are provided by the agency.
  2. Free transportation or car loan plans. Newly migrated PTs have difficulty obtaining loans for cars; most agencies provide a company car or car loan plans that will be met throughout the contract period.
  3. Free gas: Most of the traveling PT's are given gas cards or reimbursed for job-related traveling.
  4. Free licensure processing.  In endorsing your license, the agency will pay the fees for transfer to another state and help you in obtaining the license.

Note: This is list is not definite, but contains at least the minimal benefits you should receive.

The Cons:

Permanent Placement:
  1. Usually there is no free housing. At the most, there are units made available by the company at lower rates.  But some companies have free housing units (according to what I have heard), but I have yet to talk to a recruiter that offers such.
  2. Individuals who are unsatisfied with the work conditions of their current facility are stuck with them for the duration of the contract.  Personally, I do not recommend breaching contracts due to the cost and the professionalism involved.  Other employers may become wary of employing such individuals, and if another company buys out your contract, there is usually something in return (decreased salary, less benefits)
  1. Constant moving. Yes, traveling is great.  But after a length of time, it becomes boring.   You may be assigned to a remote area.  Relationships are at a 13-week or 6-month duration, then after, it is then considered long-distance.  Recruiters constantly tell you that your preference in location will be given consideration in assignments, but at the end of the day, the agency will still place you in an area that would be most profitable for them.
  2. Families are the ones affected.  It would be very difficult to remain a traveling physical therapist if your spouse is involved in a permanent placement position, PT related or not.  Children also have a difficult time in adjusting to the constant change.  As stated earlier, PTs with school age children are usually not given traveling jobs because it will affect the child's attendance in school.

Permanent Placement:
  1. Bilinguals Inc./Axiom Link: www.bilingualsinc.com
  2. O'Grady Peyton: www.ograyypeyton.com
       > Also offers traveling PT after finishing their contract or for US-grads
  3. Interface Rehab: www.interfacerehab.com
       > Also offers traveling positions within CA
       > Note: CA is usually a difficult state to enter for migrating workers due to     SSN requirements.
  4. Julie Edmunds Associates: http://www.juliaedmunds.com/
  1. Atlas Rehabilitation: www.atlasrehabilitation.com
  2. PPR Healthcare: www.pprhealthcare.com

These are just some of the agencies I have contacted.  I will update the list again when I have the time.  Please also refer to:


for a comprehensive view of the agencies and their ratings.  Hope this helps.  Feel free to post questions.  Good luck and God Bless!

What is an EAD?

Certain aliens who are temporarily in the United States may file a Form I-765, Application for Employment Authorization, to request an Employment Authorization Document (EAD), which authorizes them to work legally in the U.S. during the time the EAD is valid.

Who is eligible for an EAD that is valid for two years?

The two-year EAD is available to pending adjustment applicants (i.e., those who have filed a Form I-485, Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status) who have filed for an EAD under Section 274.a.12(c)(9) of Title 8, Code of Federal Regulations (8 C.F.R.) and who are currently unable to adjust status because an immigrant visa number is not currently available. USCIS will continue to grant EADs that are valid for one-year for adjustment applicants who have an available immigrant visa number and are filing for employment authorization under 8 C.F.R. Section 274a.12(c)(9). In order to be eligible for an EAD with a two year validity period, an applicant’s I-140, Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker, must be approved.

When will applicants expect to receive the new two-year EAD?

USCIS expects to implement this initiative for cases pending on June 30, 2008. Applicants filing Form I-765 under 8 C.F.R., Section 274.a.12(c)(9) should begin to receive their two-year EAD a couple of weeks after the anticipated June 30, 2008 implementation date.

Where can someone get more information on the new EADs?

For further information, please review the USCIS Update on the new two-year EAD posted online at: http:/www.uscis.gov.

Will applicants get a two-year EAD when they file an I-765 with their I-485 adjustment of status application?

Generally no. Initial EAD filings will generally receive an EAD that is valid for one- year because they are usually submitted with the Form I-485 that can only be filed when there is an immigrant visa number immediately available to the individual. Applicants are only eligible for a two-year EAD if their immigrant visa availability date retrogresses (i.e., when actual demand for visa numbers exceeds forecasted supply) after the Form I-485 is filed. If an immigrant visa number is available, USCIS will grant the one-year EAD.

How will USCIS decide whether to issue an EAD valid for one or two years?

USCIS will decide whether to renew an EAD for either a one or two-year validity period based on the most recent Department of State Visa Bulletin available at http://travel.state.gov/visa/frvi/bulletin/bulletin_1360.html. If an applicant’s visa number has retrogressed and is unavailable, USCIS may issue a renewal EAD valid for two years. USCIS will continue to issue

the EAD in one-year increments when the Department of State Visa Bulletin shows an employment-based preference category is current as a whole or the applicant’s priority date is current.

If I am filing for a replacement EAD under 8 C.F.R., Section 274.a.12(c)(9), how long is the EAD valid?

If an individual requests to replace an EAD that has not expired, USCIS will issue a replacement EAD that is valid through the same date as the previously issued EAD. However, if the previous EAD has expired, USCIS will process the request for a renewal EAD and determine the appropriate validity period based on the Department of State Visa Bulletin and the applicant’s priority date.

If USCIS determines that an applicant has filed multiple Forms I-765, the agency may deny the applications for the replacement or renewal EAD.

Why is USCIS changing the validity period for some EADs?

USCIS views this change as a way to better serve its customer base, and in particular, persons who are waiting to become lawful permanent residents and are impacted by the lack of immigrant visa numbers.

On July 30, 2004, USCIS published an interim rule, "Employment Authorization Documents," at 69 Federal Reg. 45555. This interim rule authorized USCIS, in its discretion, to issue EADs with validity periods other than one year based on certain criteria deemed appropriate by the Department of Homeland Security.

I filed my Form I-765 more than 90 days ago and I have not received a decision, who should I contact?

If you have not received a decision within 90 days of the USCIS receipt date and you have properly filed your EAD application, you may apply to obtain an interim EAD by appearing in person at your local USCIS District Office. You must bring proof of identity and any notices that you have received from USCIS in connection with your application for employment authorization.

If I believe I have received an EAD with the wrong validity period or other incorrect information who should I contact?

If you believe that you have received the wrong validity period, you should contact the USCIS National Customer Service Center at 1-800-375-5283 or 1-800-767-1833 (TTY).

For additional information, or if your application has been approved and you have not received your EAD, please contact the USCIS National Customer Service Center at 1-800-375-5283 or 1-800-767-1833 (TTY)

source: www.uscis.gov

  IS POEA MAKING IT HARDER? By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 01 Oct 2008

Is POEA making it harder for Philippine physical therapists to work in the U.S.?

Editors of PTSponsor.com

In order for a foreign-trained physical therapist to work in the U.S, the candidate will undergo a licensing process, examinations, English proficiency exams and the immigration process. These steps take a lot of time, money and effort.

A sponsoring company has to invest a lot of resources on the candidate. For H1-b, the company has to petition the candidate by April1st, then “hope” that the candidate gets chosen by the computerized lottery process. If not selected, they have to wait for the next year. All the time, money and resources used will go to waste. Sponsoring a foreign-trained physical therapist is a gamble. Each candidate has a one out of three chance.

For Philippine-trained physical therapist, there is one extra step- the POEA process. Aside from the tedious step listed above, every employer should pay the POEA accredited agency for the exit clearance. The amount allowed by the POEA is equivalent to one month’s salary. At 25 dollars per hour, this can be up to 5,000 dollars. Also, each sponsoring employer should follow these rules:

  1. No foreign employer may hire a Filipino worker from the Philippines for overseas employment except through Philippine-licensed placement agencies or the Philippine Overseas Recruitment Agency (POEA). Foreign principals/employers who wish to advertise overseas job vacancies may do so only through a Philippine-licensed agency or through the POEA.
  2. A Filipino worker may, however, directly apply for employment to a foreign employer without the assistance of a placement agency or may also course his application through a placement agency. If he directly applies to foreign employer without the assistance or intervention of a Philippine-registered placement agency and is subsequently employed by the foreign employer, the procedure is called “Name-Hiring”

  3. The list of duly registered and in good standing placement agencies in the Philippines can be verified at www.poea.gov.ph. Foreign employers hiring employers through a recruitment entity or intermediaries not registered or in good standing with POEA may be held criminally and/or administratively liable under Philippine law.

  4. The general mode of hiring Filipino workers for private employment is through private Philippine-registered placement agency or the POEA. However, a Filipino national may directly apply to a foreign employer provided he was not assisted by a Philippine-registered placement agency through the so-called “Name-Hiring” process;

  5. If through private Philippine-registered placement agency, the employer must be submit the following to the Embassy for verification and authentication:

    a) Special Power of Attorney or Recruitment Agreement with the  Philippine registered placement agency;

    b) Manpower Request/Job Order stating the position and salary;

    c) Master Employment Contract;

    d) Business License/Company Registration

    e) Copy of Sponsorship Nomination Approval issued by DIMIA


  6. If the worker directly applied and secured the job from the principal employer through the Name-Hiring process, the employer must submit the following to the

    Embassy for verification and authentication:

    a) Employment Contract signed by principal employer;

    b) Business License/Company Registration;

    c) Copy of Sponsorship Nomination Approval issued by DIMIA


  7. Prior to sending the documents to the Philippine Embassy, all private documents must be authenticated first.

  8. In addition to the mandatory entitlements, the employment contract must contain the following minimum provisions prescribed by Philippine labor and social legislation:

    a) Guaranteed wages for regular work hours and overtime pay, which shall not be lower than the prescribed minimum wage for the particular position or not lower than the appropriate minimum wage standards set forth in a bilateral agreement or international convention, if applicable, or not lower than the minimum wage in the Philippines, whichever is highest;

    b) Free transportation to and from the worksite, or offsetting benefit;

    c) Free food and accommodation, or offsetting benefit;

    d) Just/authorized causes for termination of the contract or of the services of the workers taking into consideration the customs, traditions, mores, practices, company policies and the labor laws and social legislation.

  9. Upon verification and authentication of the documents required under paragraphs 5 and 6, the Philippine Embassy will return them to the principal employers who would subsequently send them to their appointed Philippine-registered placement agency or to the name hire, as the case may be.

  10. Unless otherwise agreed upon with the Philippine-registered placement agency, the principal employer shall be responsible for the payment of the following expenses of the worker/s to be hired:

    a) visa fee;

    b) airfare

    c) POEA processing fee; and

    d) membership fee to the Overseas Worker Welfare Agency (OWWA)

  11. There is an authentication fee per document. Payment may be made via postal money order or bank check to the Philippine Embassy. The application for authentication should also include a prepaid self-addressed envelope for the return of processed documents to the principal employer.

  12. All immigration consultancy agencies based in the Philippines and other similar entities which do not limit themselves to document facilitation and visa assistance for immigrants, but also engage in recruitment and placement activities are required to obtain a license with POEA regardless of the visa under which deployment shall be made eventually.

  13. Foreign-based immigration consultancy agencies and other similar entities are not allowed to engage in recruitment and placement activities, except through licensed agencies to which they may seek accreditation or registration.

  14. Individuals or business entities not duly registered with POEA and acting as intermediaries to facilitate the recruitment of Filipinos may be held criminally liable under Philippine laws. Likewise, the individuals or officers of said business entities may be blacklisted and barred from entering the Philippines.

With this list, do you think POEA is protecting its citizens from illegal recruitment or just making it harder for Philippine physical therapists. If the sponsoring company will follow all these steps, it will cost them at least 10,000 dollars easy. This is not required in other countries.

We will welcome your comments, and letters. Please post them on our forums or write us on the letters to the editor section.




  H1B QUOTA NOT REACHED THIS YEAR By: Editors of PTSponsor.com Date Posted 15 Apr 2009

The H1-b quota was not reached this year. Here is the article from the USCIS website.

USCIS Updates Count of FY2010 H-1B Petition Filings

WASHINGTON—U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) today announced an updated number of filings for H-1B petitions for the fiscal year 2010 program.

USCIS has received approximately 42,000 H-1B petitions counting toward the Congressionally-mandated 65,000 cap. The agency continues to accept petitions subject to the general cap.

Additionally, the agency has received approximately 20,000 petitions for aliens with advanced degrees; however, we continue to accept advanced degree petitions since experience has shown that not all petitions received are approvable. Congress mandated that the first 20,000 of these types of petitions are exempt from any fiscal year cap on available H-1B visas.

For cases filed for premium processing during the initial five-day filing window, the 15-day premium processing period began April 7. For cases filed for premium processing after the filing window, the premium processing period begins on the date USCIS takes physical possession of the petition.

USCIS will provide regular updates as the processing of FY2010 H-1B petitions continue.

Showing 1-7 of 7 View All 

     Article Guidelines